Animal Spirits Driving Economic Change

Empirical Evidence from Entrepreneurs

Dr. Nicolaus Berlin provides evidence that economic theory, which is based on profit maximization, is obsolete. Economic change cannot be explained by profit motives alone; animal spirits are indispensable in this equation. It needs at least seven more motives to spur and drive innovation: The drive for independence, the drive to hunt, the drive to emulate, the drive to compete, the drive to bond, the drive to explore and the drive to create. The captivating chapters of this book open the readers’ mind for these subliminal forces. Human nature can now be integrated in economics, as a set of non-rational programs that evolved to aid adaptation to new circumstances and environments. Dr. Berlin explores this revolutionary approach of animal spirits and provides a fundamentally new view of economic motivation. This is a defining moment in behavioral economics.